For more information on stratigraphy and how it is used in archaeology, see the Stratigraphy glossary entry.Knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts, and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming?Culture history and diffusionism may - with hindsight - seem excessively preoccupied with classification and social evolution, and to have applied unsophisticated historical interpretations instead of asking fundamental questions about human behaviour.

Dating methods in archaeology establish the time and sequence of events that created archaeological deposits and layers, called strata, within those deposits. Absolute dating relies on biological, chemical (radiometric), geological/electromagnetic, or historical investigation to obtain the date range of a deposit.

(Examples of each method, respectively, are dendrochronology, carbon-14, archaeomagnetism, and the known year a city was destroyed.) Relative dating is based on stratigraphy (the tendency of younger layers to lie over older layers) and comparison of artifacts from undated sites to sites where dates are established.

Their result of 212–230 million years did not agree with the age of the fossils (elephant, pig, ape and tools) so they rejected the date.

They said the sample was contaminated with excess argon.

The basis for stratigraphy seems quite intuitive today, but its applications were no less than earth-shattering to archaeological theory.

For example, JJA Worsaae used this law to prove the Three Age System.

Then Richard Leakey found a skull (called KNM-ER 1470) the KBS tuff, a skull that looked far too modern to be 3 million years old.

So Curtis and others redated the KBS tuff using selected pumice and feldspar samples, and obtained an age of 1.82 million years.

Stratigraphy is based on the law of superposition--like a layer cake, the lowest layers must have been formed first.

In other words, artifacts found in the upper layers of a site will have been deposited more recently than those found in the lower layers.

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