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And you can also view every previous year's Website News pages at the links below: The last few months have been exceptionally busy ones.I was traveling and lecturing throughout much of the Lenten season and had the misfortune to pick up a bug along the way, which put me in bed for two weeks and forced me, for the first time ever, to cancel one of my lectures (in Ottawa, Canada).They were important forms of irrigation in the development of agriculture in the American Southwest.
One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.
The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0.23ºF (0.13ºC) per decade between 19, while air temperatures cooled by 0.02 to 0.09ºF (0.01 to 0.06ºC) per decade during the same period. examined the locations of 1,007 of the 1,221 monitoring stations used to determine average surface temperature changes across the continental United States.
This site, closely coupled to The Natures of the Stars and The Hertzsprung- Russell (HR) Diagram, provides an introduction to the spectra of stars and allied celestial objects.
Here we examine the principal way in which astronomers have learned so much about the stars. Pass sunlight through a triangular prism or bounce it off the finely grooved surface of a compact audio disk and see it break merrily into a band of pure sparkling color, its "spectrum," familiar in the colors of a rainbow, in light glittering from newly fallen snow, in the rings and haloes around a partly- clouded Sun and Moon, in the flash of a cut diamond, and in so many other facets of nature.
The paper found that 92% of these stations are positioned in sites that can cause errors of 1.8ºF (1ºC) or more.  For example, some stations are located over asphalt (making them hotter at certain times), and others are located in partial shade (making them cooler at certain times).
By comparing data from poorly positioned stations with other stations that are properly positioned, the study determined that the temperature irregularities in the poorly positioned stations cancel one another so that their average temperature trends are “statistically indistinguishable” from the properly positioned stations.as “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.” * Some writers use the phrases “global warming” and “climate change” to mean temperature changes strictly caused by human activity.   Other writers use adjectives such as “man-made” and “anthropogenic” to distinguish between human and non-human causes.  (“Anthropogenic” means “of human origin,” and “AGW” stands for “anthropogenic global warming.”) * Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility require the use of “language that is precise and unambiguous.” Hence, when human causes are stated or implied, this research uses terms like “man-made” and “human-induced.” * The greenhouse effect is a warming effect caused by certain gases that retain heat from sunlight. Without such gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be below freezing, and as explained by the , “life, as we know it, would not exist.” The global warming debate is centered upon whether added greenhouse gases released by human activity will overheat the Earth and cause harmful effects. * Human activities currently release about 37 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which equates to about 5% of natural CO2 emissions.Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year. † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,   and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.  * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature."Spectra" is embedded with links that will take you back to the appropriate parts of the above two sites. The classic colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet connect in a seemingly infinite number of shades, one blending smoothly into the next.Together they constitute the "visual spectrum" (or "optical spectrum") because it is the part of the full spectrum that is seen with the human eye.The visual spectrum of light, however, is but a tiny portion of the whole picture, of a huge spectrum of radiation that extends in both directions from the edges of the rainbow.